mesas: many shamans using traditional practices to
help clients in developing countries or in ethnic communities in
developed countries have incorporated religious imagery into their
healing rituals. An example is the way the shamans
in Peru and Ecuador use the images of Catholic saints or
on their mesas. G.G. Scott, The Evolution
of Shamanism. Paper Presented at the 20th International
Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes
of Healing. 2002.
typical forms: S.R.L.
Clark, "Is Humanity a Natural Kind?" In, T. Ingold, Editor, What
is an Animal? London, 1988. pp.18-9. "If
one individual can make the symbol meaningful, reveal its depths and
power, communicate some of the mystery, then that individual is performing
'a la shaman' the great event of ritualizing the object and turning
into a means for deeper awareness. Be it a cob of corn, a leaf of tobacco,
a painting, a poem, a song or a dance -- it is still the empowering,
the act of 'investing' that requires some direction and guidance and
the act of communalizing needs the shaman to show the way." L.
Irwin, HERMETICA@cofc.edu. 29 Apr 1996.
all texts where they appear, birds possess supernatural qualities,
rarely malevolent, but usually directed toward turning events in
some amazing way back toward order and mortality." T.O.
Beidelman, "The Moral Imagination of the Kaguru: Some Thoughts
on Tricksters, Translation and Comparative Analysis." In, W.J.
Hynes amd W.G. Doty, eds, Mythical Trickster Figures. University
of Alabama Press. Tuscaloosa, AL., 1993. p.179.
to sing: "'We have some close relatives,'
(Fernando) Nottebohm said. 'Chimps, even monkeys. But they can't
speak. No primate can speak. It's only humans who do it. When you
look around the animal kingdom, birds are one animal that attempts
vocally to do anything like what we do.'" M. Specter, "Rethinking
the Brain." In, M. Ridley, Editor, The Best American Science
Writing. New York, 2002. p.153. Although Nottebohm's
works has led to valuable discoveries about the brain, such as
neurogenesis, all animals speak in their way, not just birds, as
communication is vital to survival. To say that they don't attempt "vocally
to do anything like we do," is only to say that we don't have
in the end: M. Basho. From, "Records of Unreal
of my early Japanese friends, widowed for many years, said sadly
to me, 'I realize that I thought of my wife as a broom.'" R.
Aitken, Original Dwelling Place. Washington, D.C., 1996.
remains to be seen what the phantom means or--this can have still
other meanings--what the word 'phantom,' the 'word' phantom
means. In a phantom-text, these distinctions, these quotations marks,
references, or citations become irremediably precarious; they leave
only traces, and we shall never define the trace or the phantom without,
ironically or allegorically, appealing from one to the other." J.
Derrida. Quoted in, M. Wigley, The Architecture of Deconstruction.
Cambridge, MA., 1993. p. 164.