"(Arnold) Van Gennep has shown that all rites
of transition are marked by three phases: separation, margin (or limen), and
aggregation. The first phase of separation comprises symbolic behavior signifying the
detachment of the individual or group either from an earlier fixed point in the social
structure or a set of cultural conditions (a 'state'); during the intervening liminal
period, the state of the individual subject (the 'passenger') is ambiguous; he passes
through a realm that has few or none of the attributes of the past or coming state; in the
third phrase the passage is consummated." V. Turner, "Betwixt and
Between: The Liminal Period in Rites of Passage." In, L.C. Mahdi, S, Froster, and M.
Little, Editors, Betwixt & Between: Patterns of Masculine and Feminine Initiation.
La Salle, IL., 1987. p.5.
"The mind freed from social
constraints can move into the limitless domain of liminal creativity,
from which emerge not only monsters
but many of the images we call Art." V. Turner, "Process, System, and Symbol: A New Anthrolological
Synthesis." Daedalus. Vol 106, No. 3, 1977. p.69.