world: "Opposed to the world, to inhabited
areas where human culture and society thrived, was the
vast uninhabited emptiness of the forest. This polarity
the an ancient urbs/rus (city/country)
opposition in the European Middle Ages. In this context, savagery
from silva, forest) was not wholly inhuman, but was located
at the absolute limit of human activity." D.G. White, Myths of the Dog-man. Chicago,
sees: "The occipital lobes are the center of
our visual perception system. They are not particularly vulnerable
to injury because of their location at the back of the brain, although
any significant trauma to the brain could produce subtle changes
to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects and
scotomas. The Peristriate region of the occipital lobe is involved
in visuospatial processing, discrimination of movement and color
discrimination. Damage to one side of the occipital lobe causes
homonymous loss of vision with exactly the same 'field cut' in
both eyes. Disorders of the occipital lobe can cause visual hallucinations
and illusions. Visual hallucinations (visual images with no external
stimuli) can be caused by lesions to the occipital region or temporal
lobe seizures. Visual illusions (distorted perceptions) can take
the form of objects appearing larger or smaller than they actually
are, objects lacking color or objects having abnormal coloring.
Lesions in the parietal-temporal-occipital association area can
cause word blindness with writing impairments (alexia and agraphia)." http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/tbi/boccipit.htm
want to talk: Pseudo-Plutarch, "On the
Life and Poetry of Homer." (Homeri vita.)
In, Homeri Opera. Basel, 1567. p.204.
single: "Today many critics, including most of
the ones who insist that Homer was one man, seem convinced that
the original Odyssey ended in book XXIII, line 269. Then
the 'many Homers' theorists argue that if the rest of book XXIII
and all of book XXIV were added at a later time by someone else,
would it not be possible that the rest of the Odyssey was
composed in parts by different authors also? It is also possible
that there originally was a 'kernel' with all the essentials of
the story that was later built up by different authors to the present
day Iliad and the Odyssey. To-date, this remains
the strongest point of the theory that Homer was not a single man" http://classiclit.about.com
several: "Again we have an example of consciousness
being dependent on more than one factor, but we still have no idea
how such factors lead to the seemingly magic step within, the brain
that enables us not only to process and object registered by our
retina but to
consciously see it as well." S.A. Greenfield, The Human Brain.
gender: "If questions whether the 'Odyssey' was
written by a man or a woman, and whether or no it is of exclusively
Sicilian origin, where pregnant with no larger issues than the
determination of the sex and abode of the writer, it might be enough
merely to suggest the answers and refer the reader to the work
itself. Obviously, however, they have an important bearing on the
whole Homeric controversy; for if we find a woman's hand omnipresent
throughout the 'Odyssey,' and if we also find so large a number
of local details, taken so exclusively and so faithfully from a
single Sicilian town as to warrant the belief that the writer must
have lived and written there, the presumption seems irresistible
that the poem was written by a single person." S. Butler, The
Authoress of the Odyssey. Chicago, Ill., 1967.p.1.
human memory is capable of amazing feats, and in theory the poems,
with all the links between their various parts could have been composed
without the aid of writing. Only so far no example of anything comparable
having been achieved has been adducted' and no one able and willing
to perceive the unity of the epics is likely to believe it
possible." H. Lloyd-Jones, "Remarks on the Homeric Question." In,
Lloyd-Jones, V. Pearl, and B. Worden, Editors, History & Imagination:
Honor of H.R. Trevor-Roper. New York, 1982. p.27.
blind bard: It is believed that the blind bard Demodicus
(Odyssey, books VII-IX) is a self-portrayal of Homer,
which is where we get the notion that Homer was blind.
apart: According to tradition, Homer was born on the
Aegean island of Chios, sometime during the 9th Century B.C. What
we do know about written versions of the Homeric epics is that
existed by the 6th Century B.C.
minstrels and bards during the Greek "dark age,' which lasted
about three hundred years, beginning around 1100 B.C. These singers
reiterated and embellished tales
from the long-past "golden age" of heroes. "Classical scholar
archaeologist Robert Flacelière wrote:
One of these minstrels
who may have been born at Smyrna (on the coast of Iona) and lived
in Chios...(perhaps) between 850 and 750 (B.C.), more than three
centuries after the fall of Troy, was a poet of genius. It was he
who had the idea of isolating from the huge cycle of epics relating
to Troy and treating separately two episodes that seemed to offer
subjects of outstanding significance, the wrath of Achilles and the
return of Odysseus. According to ancient tradition, this poet was
Homer." Quoted in Readings on Homer. San Diego, CA.,
1998. P. 21.
dark: "I am sure that when Homer (or the many
Greeks who recorded Homer) wrote it, they were simply thinking
of the sea; the adjective was straightforward. But nowadays, if
I or if any of you, after trying many fancy adjectives, write in
a poem 'the wine-dark sea,' this is not a mere repetition of what
the Greeks wrote. Rather, it is going back to tradition. When we
speak of 'the wine-dark sea,' we think of Homer and of the thirty
centuries that lie between us and him. So that although the words
may be much the same, when we write 'the wine-dark sea' we are
really writing something quite different from what Homer was
writing." J.L. Borges, This Craft of Verse. Cambridge, MA., 2000.
is lost: www.neuroskills.com/tbi/boccipit.html
temples: W.B. Seabrook, The Magic Island. New
mean: "Rapid, plain, direct, noble: yes, these
are the properties of a readable Homer in English, as any reader
of Robert Fitzgerald's Homer will testify. The great challenge
is that of capturing the spirit of the thing, the soul of the text,
rather than wrestling only with its 'form and meaning.' In the
original, what we find is a form of meaning." S.
Hamill, A Poet's Work. Seattle, WA., 1990. p.118.
to: "perhaps the little person inside the head
is just the stream of consciousness. A serial sampling parallel
processes. And it, in turn, may be biased strongly toward the verbal
happenings, leaving out all sorts of more mundane things like blood
pressure. 'Where does this leave Julian Jaynes?' Neil asked after
a moment. 'His theory that talking to ourselves wasn't evolved
until recent times, back between the writing of the Iliad and the
Odyssey? Before then, we heard voices telling us to do things,
afterward we narrated our life's story ourselves. W. H. Calvin
and G.A. Ojemann, Conversations With Neil's
Brain. Reading, MA., 1994. p.282; J. Jaynes, The Origin of Consciousness
the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Boston, MA., 1976
out: "Visual information reaches the (pontine
nuclei) both as detailed factual representation and in processed
form relevant for directed visual attention from the superior
colliculus. Vision, however, does not help patients with cerebellar
disorders make accurate intended movements. On the contrary, they
can become more undulating, presumably because of more time-consuming
corrections." V.B. Brooks, The Neural
Basis of Motor Control. New York, 1986. p.268.
of the key consequences of the assumption that the cerebellum is a
that it has a major function in early behavior by regulating the initial
development of appropriate reentrant relationships among selected neuronal groups
in the cortex and spinal cord. Upon repeated selection, however, the activity
of the cerebellum may be needed only for occasional reinforcements or slight
corrections. In this view, the cerebellum, like the hippocampus, does not store
specific patterns for motion but, rather, serves to link successive unpredicted
parts of synergies constructed in a global
mapping." G.M. Edelman, Neural Darwinism. New York, 1987. p.229.
have to reduce information and optimize the information in some fashion.
And as you project into the brain there are again several hundred million
nerve cells in the visual cortex that can then analyze the information
again and distribute it to higher centers where you will finally have
a perceived image. We don't really understand what happens. It is still
a mystery. Our main problem--to understand the neural bias of perception--is
still to be made." T. Wiesel, D. Brian, The Voice of Genius:
Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries. Cambridge,
process of compounding two things added together does not produce a
but suggests some fundamental relation between them." Ernest Fenollosa.
Géfin, Ideogram: History of a Poetic Method. Austin, TX., 1982.
system: S. Walens, Feasting with Cannibals: An Essay on Kwakiutl
Cosmology. Princeton, NJ., 1981. pp. 98-9.
is a Greeble anyway? The Greebles form a category of computer-generated
novel objects that were originally designed as a control set for
faces. Like faces, Greebles are all similar because they have the
same number of parts in the same configuration. Although they may
have properties in common with faces (bilateral symmetry, organic-like
characteristics) the Greebles are apparently not treated as faces
by our visual system. One example of this is that patient CK, who
performs normally with any face-like stimuli (including cartoons
such as Bart Simpson and Donald Duck, and faces made of fruits!)
but is very poor at recognizing any other object, treats Greebles
like objects. Moreover, normal subjects appear to process Greebles
in a part-based fashion comparable to the way they recognize other
non-face objects. However, research with Greebles has shown that
after people become experts at recognizing individual Greebles, they
then process. Greebles in a holistic and configural fashion, the
way we tend to treat upright faces. Greeble experts also activate
their 'fusiform face area' in the brain more than novices do. Face-like
expertise effects have also been found for Greeble experts in
temporal signature of object processing. I. Gauthie,
Master Nojo: L. Downer, On the Narrow Road: Journey
Lost Japan. New York, 1989. p.202.
volatile: N.K. Sandars, Prehistoric Art in Europe. Baltimore,
World Dictionary of the American Language. 2nd Edition. New York, 1980.
mammoth: "Mammoths are extinct herbivorous mammals
that had long, dense hair and underfur, very long tusks, a long proboscis
(nose), large ears and lived throughout the world. They lived from
about 2 million years ago to 9,000 years ago, millions of years after
the dinosaurs went extinct. They are closely related to modern-day
Indian elephants (they have common ancestor). Some tusks were straight,
some were curved; the longest were up to 13 feet (4 m) long....Much
of our knowledge of mammoths is from cave drawings and from mummified
mammoths found in Siberian ice." http://www.zoomdinosaurs.com/subjects/mammals/Iceagemammals.shtml
in green: "Babies see color from birth, but they
have difficulty distinguishing similar tones such as red and orange...
But starting at 2 months and continuing through month four, color
differences become clearer, and your baby starts to distinguish
like shades. As a result, she'll probably begin to show a preference
for bright primary colors and more detailed and complicated designs
and shapes." http://www.babycenter.com
now it was possible to see an objective image in shared space, one
that was not the property of particular bodies and had a life of its
own, and from this point the whole history of human visual communication
unfolds." R. Hughes, "Behold the Stone
Age." Time Magazine, 13 Feb 95.
stream: "'Can I help you?' 'Yes,' I said. 'I'm
curious about the trout stream you have for sale. Can you tell
me something about it?' 'We're selling it by the foot length.
You can buy as little as you want or you can buy all we've got
left. We're selling the waterfalls separately of cause, and the
trees and birds, flowers, grass and ferns we're also selling extra.
The insects we're giving away free with a minimum purchase of ten
of stream.'" R. Brautigan, Trout Fishing In America, The Pill
Springhill Mine Disaster and In Watermelon Sugar. Boston, MA., 1989.
the fall of 1984 Richard Brautigan went to stay for a while in
Bolinas (California) where he had kept a home for some years. He
holed up and kept to himself for several weeks until some friends,
concerned that they hadnt seen him for a while, stopped in
to check on him. They were the first to discover his body. He had
been dead for days. An autopsy revealed that he had shot himself.
He was 49 years old." K. Opstedal, "A Literary History
of the San Andreas Fault: Bolinas Section." http://www.jackmagazine.com/renhist.html.
"The occipital lobes
are the center of our visual perception system. They are not particularly
vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the
brain, although any significant trauma to the brain could produce
subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field
defects and scotomas. E. Kandel, J. Schwartz & T. Jessell,
Principles of Neural Science. 3rd edition. New York, 1991.(scotoma:
An island-like blind gap in the visual field. Taber's Medical
your head: Of course this expression is cloisted in
the fact that, except with reference to a mirror, we can't see
our heads. Vision is constructed inside the skull-house, beginning
with the eyes admitting information in the form of light, which
is converted into electrical signals, relayed, then, to the occipital
lobe in the very rear of the brain." From there, a small portion
of the image, called the attention window gets sent down
the temporal lobe (the region next to your ears), where your brain determines
what you're looking at. In addition, information from the entire image goes up
to the parietal
lobe, where information about where things are is kept.
have been: E.A. Armstrong, The Folklore of Birds.
New York, 1970. Pp. 66-7.
systems: "Our suspicion is that while these suggestions
about two systems are on the right lines, they are probably over
simple. The little that is known of the neuroanatomy would suggest
that there are likely to be multiple cortical streams, with numerous
connections between them..." F. Crick and C. Koch, "Consciousness
Neuroscience." Cerebral Cortex. 8:97-107 (1998).
Bridge: The principle of the modern suspension bridge
seems to have originated in a region of the Himalayas, where a
bridgebuilder "threw over the chasm two parallel cables; from
these he hung vertical suspenders made of thinner rope which carried
the roadway platform...It represents a great advance in culture,
for it is not merely an improvement upon natural bridges: it is
actually a new idea." D.B. Steinman and S.R. Watson, Bridges
and Their Builders. New York, 1941. p.20.
conspiracy: "But now it was possible to see an
objective image in shared space, one that was not the property
of particular bodies and had a life of its own, and from this point
history of human visual communication unfolds." R. Hughes, "Behold
Age." Time, 13 Feb 95.
Dock 4: "Thousands of people crowded the St.
Johns Bridge and the banks of the Willamette River to welcome it
to Portland in 1978. Politicians crowed about the prestige and
jobs it would bring. Voters pledged millions for it. About 30,000
people showed up to sing, dance and explore the mammoth structure
at a welcoming event. But before dawn Monday, the massive structure
will leave, barring the unexpected, without ceremony or
veneration." D. Rivera, "In like a lion, out like a lamb." The
July 2001. p.A1.
Borkhuis. From, "Slice of Life."
name, meaning "High One," for Mt. McKinley. At 20,320 ft
(6,194m) above sea level, this mountain is the highest in North America.
While the higher peaks in the Himalayas and the Andes are part of mountain
ranges, Denali rises almost alone, 16,000 ft. above the snowline. It
is also perhaps the coldest mountain outside Antarctica, with its summit
well below zero degrees Fahrenheit almost all year round.
mountains I have seen in Alaska: Drum and Wrangell and a third
massive one whose name I forget, rising out of the vast birchy
plain of Copper Valley. They are sacred and majestic mountains,
ominous, enormous, noble, stirring. You want to attend to them.
Beauty and terror of the Chugach. Dangerous valleys. Points. Saws.
Snowy nails." T. Merton, "September 24, 1968 (Valdez)." Thomas
Merton in Alaska. New York, 1989.
sun: "In many cultures, the sun was associated
with the divine eye, a luminous and powerful force watching over
humanity with an untiring gaze. In the sacred Hindu writings, the
sun is called 'the eye of the world,' or Toka-Chakshun. Helios,
the Greek god of the
sun, was referred to as the "eye of the day.' Christianity preserved this
association by calling Jesus the 'light of the world,' and for many centuries
Christian art represented the all-seeing, all-powerful God as an eye (or a hand
or an arm) emerging from
the clouds." P Webbink, The Power of the Eyes. New York, 1986.
art: J. Dee, Mathematicall Praeface.
gone: "Promising new results come from The Schepens Eye Research
Institute today that demonstrate how surgeons might eventually be able to turn
a blind eye
back into a seeing one. The work, reported in the journal Molecular and Cellular
Neuroscience, marks the first instance of transplanting stem cells, the progenitors
of all cells, into diseased eyes in hopes of regenerating damaged retinas--thin
sheets of cells in the back eye that collect patterns of light. In fact, many
forms of blindness result from illnesses that injure the retina, including macular
degeneration, glaucoma and
"Michael Young and colleagues derived neural stem cells from the hippocampus
of adult rats and then injected them into the gel-like vitreous of eyes in rats
showing retinal degeneration. In one-, four- and 10-week-old animals, the donor
cells not only took, but actually migrated to the right place, started assuming
the characteristics of retinal cells and extended into the optic nerve, which
links the eye to the brain. In older animals the neural cells were also widely
accepted. Surprisingly, the transplants worked
best in the most damaged eyes.
"'These cells somehow sense that they are needed, and begin to differentiate
cells that could take on the job of retinal neurons,'" Young comments. 'It
is exciting that neural progenitor cells are capable of responding to injury
cues in the mature central nervous system.' Although Young cautions that there
is still a long way to go, he adds that 'We are optimistic that this technique
will one day restore vision to
those who have been blinded by disease or injury.'" K. Leutwyler, Scientific
American, August, 2001.
to some...at the moment of its creation, (the primordial Torah) appeared
as a series of letters not yet joined up in the form of words. For
this reason, in the Torah rolls there appear neither vowels, nor punctuation,
nor accents; for the original Torah was nothing but a disordered heap
of letters. Furthermore, had it not been for Adam's sin, these letters
might have been joined differently to form another story." U.
Eco, The Search for the Perfect Language. Oxford, UK., 1995.
sight centers: http://biology.about.com/science/biology/gi/dynamic
tantalizing and related mystery of the brain is why electrical signals
arriving in the visual cortex should be experienced as vision, while
exactly the same kind of electrical signals, arriving in another part
of the brain such as the somatosensory cortex of the auditory cortex,
should be perceived as touch and hearing
respectively." S.A. Greenfield, The Human Brain. New York, 1997. p.52.
Kwakiutl (People of British Columbia) believe that morality arose from
actions of Q!aneqelaku, the Transformer, the being who transforms the
world from its past, amoral, hunger-dominated condition to its present, moral,
state." S. Walens, Feasting With Cannibals: An Essay of Kwakiutl Cosmology.
Princeton, NJ., 1981. p.125.
it may be: "Monkeys and other primates, including
humans, have specialized brain cells that act like an internal
mirror. These cells, aptly dubbed 'mirror neurons,' are active
when a monkey does something such as grasp a block and also when
the monkey sees someone else grasp a block.New research shows that
the mirror neurons also fire when the experimenter grasps a block
that is hidden from view, as long as the monkey can assume the
block is there.
"'When I see a girl eating an apple, I understand what she is doing because
there is activation of a motor mechanism in my brain. In other words, I am doing
in my brain the same thing the girl does. I am in her shoes, as people say,'
says Giacomo Rizzolatti, a psychologist from the University of Parma in Italy
and an author of the study. 'The new data show that this mechanism is active
also when we, or monkeys, do not see the action but only guess what it might
be,' says Rizzolatti.
"The researchers tested the brains of two macaque monkeys, using electrodes
to record the response of individual mirror neurons. The monkeys watched a person
grasp a block in full view or grasp a block that was behind a screen. As long
as the monkey had reason to believe the block was behind the screen, the mirror
The mirror neurons may represent the basic circuitry that primates use to function
in a society. 'You're not going to make a society with individuals you don't
understand,' says Marco Iacoboni, a neuroscientist from the University of California,
Los Angeles. 'We think, with this very simple mechanism, you can understand
the actions of others and the
intentions of others.'" B. Mason, Dallas Morning News
Orlando Sentinel, 2001.
anticipate: H. Gardner.
it's walls: M. Wigley, The Architecture of Deconstruction:
Derrida's Haunt. Cambridge, MA., 1993.
Gossens Allende (1908-1973), was president of Chile (1970-1973). "In
1970, calling for social and economic changes, Allende narrowly won
the presidency, receiving just over 36 percent of the vote. His policies
aimed to improve conditions for the poor and diminish the role of private
property and corporations, especially foreign-owned companies, in Chile's
economy. Allende called this the 'Chilean Road' to socialism, via peaceful
democratic elections and legislation...
"In pursuing his goals, Allende increased the speed of land reform, breaking
up large estates and giving land to poor farmers. He nationalized many businesses,
including coal, steel, and the vital copper industry. His government also froze
prices, raised wages, subsidized milk, and made medical care and education available
"Under President Richard Nixon, the United States sought to prevent Allende's
inauguration and then to speed his overthrow through economic pressure and covert
aid to his opponents. The United States discouraged new private investment in
Chile and blocked funds from the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and
Interamerican Development Bank. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency secretly
sent at least $10 million to Chilean
groups that opposed Allende..." A-M. Smith, Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
2001 http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
wrong: "On September 11, 1973, Allende was overthrown
in a violent military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte.
During the coup Allende was offered safe exile but chose to remain
in the presidential offices, which were attacked with rocket fire
and besieged by army troops. When the siege ended, Allende was
found dead of bullet wounds. Official reports state that Allende
committed suicide, but many assert that he was assassinated by
the invading soldiers." Ibid.
is almost nothing that is not brought to a finished state by means
fire." Elder Pliny, Natural History. (1st Century A.D. This includes
weapons. For example, instead of using his sword to blind Polyphemus, the "much-famed" one-eyed
Cyclopes, Odysseus fashions a wooden spear, heating its tip in fire until red-hot
before plunging this "violent technology" into the ogre's eye. Such
a spear was "the primordial weapon of man," extending back to the Paleolithic,
as "the only effective weapon for hunting." W. Burkert, Structure
and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. Berkeley, 1979. p.34.
smoke: "Even by 1920, the U.S. sugar industry still
was small, centered mainly in Louisiana and Hawaii with a slowly
developing sugar-beet presence in the Midwest. Despite a subtropical
climate and an early sugar heritage--Canaveral means 'cane
field' in Spanish--cane was a garden species, grown piecemeal by
settlers and Seminoles. The future capital of cane was still dismissed
as a hot, buggy, underpopulated state whose swampy saw-grass interior,
in one account, was 'suitable only for the haunt of noxious vermin,
the resort of pestilent reptiles." P. Roberts, "The Sweet Hereafter." Harper's
Magazine. November 1999. p.57.
watch: "The universe does not exist 'out there,'
independent of us. We are inescapably involved in bringing about
what appears to be happening. We are not only observers; we are
participators. In some strange sense this is a participatory universe.
Physics is no longer satisfied with insights only into particles,
fields of force, into geometry, or even into space and time. Today
we demand of physics some understanding of existence.
itself." J. Wheeler. In, D. Brian, The Voice of Genius: Conversations
Scientists and Other Luminaries. Cambridge, MA., 2001. p.127.
This relates to The Anthropic
Principle, first suggested in 1973 by the cosmologist Brandon Carter,
and now comes in three flavors: Weak (WAP), Strong (SAP), and John
Wheeler's Final Anthropic Principle (FAP), which he touches on above.
The Anthropic Principle, introduced 500 years after Copernicus suggested
a sun-centered planetary system, places humans at the center of a
universe specifically designed for them. The opposite to this anthropological
point of view is philosopher Paul Feyerabend's statement that we
live in "a world whose features are independent of thought and
perception or, to express it more dramatically, the idea that humans
are aliens, not natural inhabitants of the universe." P. Feyerabend, Conquest
of Abundance. Chicago, IL., 1999. p.167.
bodies: "To be eaten, or not to be eaten but
to eat, these are two sides of the basic process of life. Man eats
animals, and consumes them, disturbing the balance of life; to
make up for this, myth introduces an agent who preserves the flocks
and eats men. The ogre, master of animals, is a term necessitated
by structural logic, as it were, not childlike
fantasy." Burkert; Ibid. p.33.
from a dead end by the use of violent technology more than once, man
has triumphantly survived, but remains endangered by the curse of violated
nature (represented here by the Cyclops). The antithesis of nature
and culture is more than a logical game; it may be
fatal." Berkert; Ibid., p.34.
and all: "As Siegfried Giedion writes, 'A bird's
head upon a human figure is one of the most venerable mythological
inventions. It appears in an early phase of the Aurignacian period
as well as on the female figures at Pech Merle.' These goddess
figures are not set apart, three of them remain entangled in the
labyrinthine lines with the mammoths. The
one with a head has been named the Lady of the Mammoths. As the
earliest known bird deities, they express the emotional intensity
of early perceptions and beliefs covering an extremely rich system,
one far more complex than had been previously been imagined." B.
Johnson, Lady of the Beasts. San Francisco, CA., 1988.
p.11.; S. Giedion, The
Eternal Present: The Beginnings of Art. New York, 1962. p.503.
Mockingbird's song: "They are not the soft
sounds of the flute or of the hautboy that I hear, but the sweeter
notes of Nature's own music. The mellowness of the song, the varied
modulations and gradations, the extent of its compass, the great brilliancy
of execution, are unrivaled. There is probably no bird in the world
that possesses all the musical qualifications of this king of song,
who has derived all
from Nature's self." J. J. Audubon, Birds of America. Vol. 2.
hawk: The Fish Hawk "may be said to be of a mild
disposition. Not only do these birds live in perfect harmony together,
but they even allow other birds of very different character to
approach so near to them as to build their nests of the very materials
of which the outer parts of their own are constructed.....It never
forces its young from the nest, as some other Hawks do, but, on
the contrary, is seen to feed them even when they have begun to
procure food for themselves." Ibid.; Vol.1.
Homer: "He was said to be living in a remote
international scientific outpost in the Antarctic. He was reported
to have bought a small island off Costa Rica and declared himself
dictator. One web page gave an extensive excerpt of what was supposedly
his upcoming/novel about the life of Shakespeare, told in the first
person. There was no way to tell whether any or all of this was
apocryphal. Horace Jacob Little seemed less and actual person than
a myth handed down from generation to generation, a bogeyman in
that varied wildly with the teller." D. Czuchlewski, The Muse Asylum. New
Odysseus: "the first scratchings on sheepskin
or papyrus of a new scribal craft may not seem like much, but if
writing could have altered the sensibilities of poets at large--in
a tradition that honored poetry as much as it did athletics--those
poets could have influenced the emergence of consciousness. At
any rate, Odysseus--who was conceived by a poet called Homer perhaps
a generation further into the eighth century and into the alphabetic
tradition then Achilles, who was conceived by the poet's previous
serial self, also, called Homer---displays advances in awareness
of himself as a whole
man." R. Eisner, The Road to Daulis. Syracuse, NY, 1987. p.96.
Radnóti (1909-1944) was Hungary's great classical/avant-garde poet.
He was deported to Yugoslavia to work in labor camps and copper mines,
finally to be murdered by the Nazis.
Brain: "After the bullet hit, his body felt indescribably
cold. It was extremely painful, but after the pain came a feeling
of extraordinary comfort. That comfort lasted for only an instant:
there was a feeling of comfort, and then it ended, and he died.
When he had just died, at first he wasn't aware of anything, it
all went dark and empty...How he came back to life later he did
not know: he just felt as if he were on a springboard, then there
was a somersault, and he came back." H-C Nan, To Realize
York Beach, ME, 1994. p.49.
Radnóti. From, "Picture Postcards."
rarely damaged: http://biology.about.com/science/biology/gi/dynamic
dreams: "(Allan) Hobson is probably the most
influential (and controversial) neuroscientist working on dreams
today. It is his conviction that dreaming is a reaction to random
nervous system activity and is nothing more than a marginally successful
attempt to make sense of a sequence of images in the visual cortex.
These images are brought on by random bursts of the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine which has, among other things, the property of causing
hyperassociation, or the ability of the brain 'to jump from one
class of images/thoughts to another' --in short, rampant metaphor.
Dreams are, Hobson insists, 'a weak form of psychosis because they
are attended by the same discontinuities and hallucinations that
one finds in psychosis and delirium.'" B.O.States, "Dreams:
The Royal Road to Metaphor." http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/substance/v030/30.1states.html;
J.A. Hobson, The Chemistry of Conscious States: How the Brain
Changes Its Mind. Boston, 1994. p.199.
that see: There's a Buddhism belief that the eye is
the organ by which we see, instead of neuroscience's belief that
seeing takes place in the visual cortex, along with its various
corners: "this, of course, is the society of
total visibility." D. Czuchlewski, The
Muse Asylum. New York, 2001.
eyes: "Illinois doctors plan to implant microscopic
chips in the eyeballs of three people suffering from retinal damage,
in the second phase of a study that may determine whether chips
can restore human vision.
"The microsurgery starts with three incisions smaller than the diameter
of a introduce a vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the eye
and replaces it with saline solution. Surgeons then make a pinpoint opening in
the retina to inject fluid in order to lift a portion of the retina from the
back of the eye, creating a pocket to accommodate the chip. The retina is resealed
over the chip, and doctors inject air into the middle of the eye to force the
retina back over the device and close the incisions.
"The chip, called Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)...is just 2 millimeters
in diameter and 1/1000 of an inch in thickness. It requires no batteries or wires
and is completely self-contained, since it is powered by the light that enters
the eye. The chip contains 3,500 microscopic solar cells that convert light into
electrical impulses. It works by replacing damaged photoreceptors, the so-called
light-sensing cells of the eye. Healthy cells convert light into electrical signals
within the retina." D. Sherman, "Doctors Test Chips in Eyeballs to
Restore Sight." Reuters, 20 July 2001.
eyes: "An important faculty that the clever men
possess, and that is assiduously trained 'the strong eye.' This
means not so much the power of looking into another person's mind
as the power of looking into and through a sick person's body to
see whether the soul is present or not, and also of being able
to see the spirit of a 'murderer' and even the spirits of the dead.
In short, to possess the strong eye is to have the faculty of seeing
spirits, of the living and of the dead." A.P. Elkin, Aboriginal
Men of High
Degree. Rochester, VT., 1994. p.50.
Jewish sense: D. Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous.
New York, 1996.
something: "The scientific community arrives at its definition
of 'to see' by averaging the responses of a population of 'normal' individuals
across numerous days of testing. In other words, the working definition of 'to
see' is defined by the method of inquiry used within the context of a particular
way of seeing. There is little, of anything, in the method that takes into account
either our perceptual potential or any mode of seeing that falls outside what
happens in a darkened laboratory setting." L. Sewall, Sight and Sensibility.
New York, 1999. p.48.
Indiana State University, Neils Rattenborg monitored the brain waves
of mallards sleeping in a row, and found that the ducks on the perimeter,
who were in greater risk of attack, slept with the eye facing away
from the group open, one brain hemisphere awake,
while the other rested.